Khyber Pakhtunkhwa locally called Pakhtunkhwa (literally "area of Pashtuns") and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country. It borders the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) to the west and south, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north-east, Azad Kashmir to the east and Punjab and the Islamabad Capital Territory to the south-east. The province of Balochistan is located southwards while Afghanistan borders Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the north-west. The main ethnic group in the province are the Pashtun people; other smaller ethnic groups include most notably the Hindkowans, Dards, Chitralis (who include the Kalasha) and Gujjars.
The provincial language is Pashto, spoken by the majority as first language; Urdu, the national language, is widely spoken as a second language. English, the official language of Pakistan, is mainly used for official and literary purposes. The provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has the third largest economy in Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's share of Pakistan's GDP has historically comprised 10.5%, although the province accounts for 11.9% of Pakistan's total population. The part of the economy that Khyber Pakhtunkhwa dominates is forestry, where its share has historically ranged from a low of 34.9% to a high of 81%, giving an average of 61.56%. Currently, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa accounts for 10% of Pakistan's GDP, 20% of Pakistan's mining output and.
Agriculture remains important and the main cash crops include wheat, maize, tobacco (in Swabi), rice, sugar beets, as well as fruits are grown in the province.
Some manufacturing and high tech investments in Peshawar has helped improve job prospects for many locals, while trade in the province involves nearly every product. The bazaars in the province are renowned throughout Pakistan. Unemployment has been reduced due to establishment of industrial zones.
Workshops throughout the province support the manufacture of small arms and weapons. The province accounts for at least 78% of the marble production in Pakistan.